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Meril Jeffery John.J

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Brief description: If This is God's Will then no man can Fight it
Sex: Male
Relationship Status: Single

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"Do not be Afraid, Abram (Meril). I will shield you from danger and give you a great reward." (Genesis 15:1) 

"Coincidence is God's way of staying anonymous."

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        • Meril Jeffery John.J
          Meril Jeffery John.J posted 1 images
          • Meril Jeffery John.J
            Meril Jeffery John.J posted 1 images
          • You're the Best Scientist, You're the Best President, You're the Best Inspiration for the Youth, You're the Father of Indian Nuclear & Space Technology above all You're the Best Human Being ~ Though you have gone far away from this world You're Memories & Great Work will Stay with this Mighty Nation Allways.
            RIP ~ Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam

          • People say "I Lost My Heart" well I had the Heart but Lost the BEAT In It ..

          • கறிவேப்பிலையை ஒதுக்குபவர்கள் வெகு விரைவில் ஆரோக்கியத்தை இழப்பார்கள். நாளடைவில் மருத்துவமனைக்கும் வீட்டுக்கும் அலைவார்கள்.

             

            அறிவிலும் ஆக்கத்திலும் சிறந்த நம் முன்னோர்கள் கறிவேப்பிலையின் பயனை அறிந்தே அதை சமையலுக்கு பயன்படுத்தியுள்ளனர். எனவே குழந்தைகளுக்கு கறிவேப்பிலை தினமும் உணவில் சேர்த்து சாப்பிடும் பழக்கத்தைக் கொண்டு வரவேண்டும்.

             

            கறிவேப்பிலையில் வைட்டமின் ஏ, பி, பி2, சி போன்ற உயிர்சத்துக்கள் நிரம்பியுள்ளன. சுண்ணாம்புச் சத்தும் இரும்புச் சத்தும் அதிகம் உள்ளன.

             

            சர்க்கரை நோயாளிகளுக்கு:

             

            சர்க்கரை நோயால் பாதிக்கப்பட்டவர்கள் அதிக மயக்கத்துக்கு ஆளாவார்கள். மேலும் கைகால் வலி கண்பார்வை குறைபாடு உண்டாகும். இவர்கள் அடிக்கடி கறிவேப்பிலையை உணவில் சேர்த்துக் கொள்ள வேண்டும். 

             

            கறிவேப்பிலையை நிழலில் உலர்த்தி காய வைத்து பொடியாக்கி கஷாயம் செய்து காலை மாலை குடித்து வந்தால் உடலில் சர்க்கரையின் அளவை சீராக வைத்திருக்கும்.

             

            மன அழுத்தம் நீங்க:

             

            அதிக மன அழுத்தம் காரணமாக சிலர் எப்போது பார்த்தாலும் குழப்பமாகவே இருப்பார்கள். எந்த வேலையை முதலில் செய்வது என்று புரியாமல் தவிப்பார்கள். இவர்களுக்கு அருமருந்தாக கறிவேப்பிலை திகழ்கிறது.

             

            கறிவேப்பிலையை நன்கு நீரில் அலசி அதனுடன் சிறிது இஞ்சி, சின்ன வெங்காயம், 2 பூண்டு பல், சீரகம், புதினா அல்லது கொத்தமல்லி கலந்து நன்கு அரைத்து அதனுடன் எலுமிச்சம் பழத்தைப் பிழிந்து நன்கு கலக்கி மதிய உணவில் சாதத்தோடு கலந்து சாப்பிட்டு வந்தால் மன இறுக்கம், மன உளைச்சல், மன அழுத்தம் குறைந்து குழப்பமான மனநிலை மாறும். மேலும் ஞாபக சக்தியைத் தூண்டும். உடலை புத்துணர்வு பெறச் செய்யும்.

             

            இளநரை மாற:

             

            இன்றைய நவீன இரசாயன உணவு வகைகளாலும் பதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட உணவுகளாலும் உடலுக்குத் தேவையான சத்துக்களைக் கொடுக்க முடியவில்லை. இதனால் இளவயதிலேயே தலைமுடி நரைக்க ஆரம்பித்து முதுமையை வெகுவிரைவில் கொண்டு வந்து விடுகின்றது. இவர்கள் தினமும் உணவில் சேர்க்கும் கறிவேப்பிலையை ஒதுக்காமல் சாப்பிட வேண்டும்.

            கறிவேப்பிலையை தலையில் தேய்க்கும் எண்ணெயில் போட்டு காய்ச்சி ஆறவைத்து பாட்டிலில் அடைத்து தலையில் தேய்த்து வந்தால் இளநரை மாறும்.

             

            கொழுப்புச் சத்து குறைய:

             

            இன்று நாம் கொழுப்புச் சத்து நிறைந்த உணவுகளையே அதிகம் சாப்பிடுகிறோம். இதனால் இரத்த அழுத்தம், உடல் பருமன், உடல் சோர்வு போன்றவை உருவாகின்றது. இந்த கொழுப்புப் பொருள் பெரும்பாலும் எண்ணெயின் மூலம் அதிகம் உடலில் சேர்கின்றது. ஒரு லிட்டர் எண்ணெயில் 10 கறிவேப்பிலை போட்டு காய்ச்சி வடிகட்டினால் எண்ணெயில் உள்ள கொழுப்புச் சத்து நீங்கும்.

             

            சுவையின்மை நீங்க:

             

            சிலருக்கு உணவு உண்ணும்போது அதில் அதீத சுவை இருந்தாலும் கூட அதை அவர் நாவினால் உணர முடியாது. இந்த சுவை அறியாதவர்களுக்கு எதைச் சாப்பிட்டாலும் மண்ணைத் தின்பது போலத்தான் இருக்கும். நிறைய குடும்பத்தில் கணவன் மனைவியிடையே பிரச்சனை ஏற்பட இதுவும் ஒரு காரணமாகின்றது. 

             

            இவர்கள் கறிவேப்பிலை, சீரகம், இஞ்சி, சிறிதளவு பச்சை மிளகாய், புளி, உப்பு, பூண்டு இவைகளை நன்கு அரைத்து சூடான சாதத்தில் கலந்து சாப்பிட்டு வந்தால் சுவையை உணரும் தன்மை நாவிற்கு கிடைக்கும்.

             

            வயிற்றுப் போக்கு குணமாக:

             

            கறிவேப்பிலை - 20 கிராம்

             

            சீரகம் - 5 கிராம்

             

            இரண்டையும் அரைத்து வாயில் போட்டு வெந்நீரை குடிக்க வேண்டும். சிறிது நேரம் கழித்து ஒரு டீஸ்பூன் சுத்தமான தேனையும் பருக வேண்டும். இவ்வாறு மூன்று வேளைகள் அருந்தி வந்தால் வயிற்றுப்போக்கு குணமாகும்.

             

            · குடலில் உள்ள கிருமிகளை அழிக்கும்.

             

            · கண் பார்வை தெளிவடையும்

             

            · இரத்தத்தைச் சுத்தப்படுத்தும்.

             

            · மது போதையில் தள்ளாடுபவர்களுக்கு கறிவேப்பிலையின் சாறு கொடுத்தால் போதை உடனே குறையும்.

             

            · கை கால் நடுக்கத்தைப் போக்கும்.

             

            · வீக்கம், கட்டிகள் போன்றவற்றைக் குணப் படுத்தும்.

             

            · நகங்களில் ஏற்படும் நோய்களைக் குணப் படுத்தும்.

             

            இவ்வளவு மருத்துவப் பயன்களைக் கொண்ட கறிவேப்பிலையை தினமும் உணவில் சேர்த்து வந்தால் நோயின்றி நூறாண்டு வாழலாம்.

            அனைவரின் வீட்டிலும் அவசியம் இருக்கவேண்டிய ஒன்று. செடி வைக்க இடம் இல்லாதவர்கள் தொட்டிகளில் வைத்து வளர்த்து வாருங்கள். தினமும் பிரெஷான இலைகளை பறித்து சமையலில் சேர்த்து பயன் பெறுங்கள் . ஆரோக்கியம் என்பது வெளியில் இல்லை நம் வீட்டில் இருக்கிறது 

          • நீரழிவு நோயை தடுக்கும்:

            நிலக்கடலையில் மாங்கனீஸ் சத்து நிறைய உள்ளது. மாங்கனீஸ் சத்துமாவுச்சத்து மற்றும் கொழுப்புகள் மாற்றத்தில் முக்கிய பங்காற்றுகிறது. நாம் உண்ணும் உணவில் இருந்து கால்சியம் நமது உடலுக்குகிடைக்கவும் பயன்படுகிறது.குறிப் பாக பெண்கள் நிலக்கடலையை தொடர்ந்து சாப்பிட்டு வந்தால் எலும்புத்துளை நோய் வராமல் பாதுகாத்துக் கொள்ளலாம்.


            பித்தப் பை கல்லைக் கரைக்கும்:

            நிலக்கடலையை தினமும் 30 கிராம் அளவுக்கு தினமும் சாப்பிட்டுவந்தால் பித்தப்பை கல் உருவா வதைத் தடுக்க முடி யும். 20 வருடம்தொடர்ந்து நடத்தப்பட்ட ஆய்வில் இந்த தகவல் தெரியவந்துள்ளது.

            இதயம் காக்கும்:

            நிலக் கடலை சாப்பிட்டால் எடை போடும் என்று நாம் நினைக்கிறோம். உண்மையல்ல. மாறாக உடல் எடை அதிகமாகாமல் இருக்கவேண்டும் என்று நினைப்பவர்களும் நிலக்கடலை சாப்பிடலாம். நிலக்கடலையில் ரெஸ்வ ரெட்ரால் என்ற சத்து நிறைந்துள்ளது. இது இதய வால்வுகளை பாதுகாக்கிறது. இதய நோய்கள் வருவதையும்தடுக்கிறது. இதுவே மிகச் சிறந்த ஆண்டி ஆக்சிடென்டாக திகழ்கிறது.

            இளமையை பராமரிக்கும்:

            இது இளமையை பராமரிக்க பெரிதும் உதவுகிறது. நிலக்கடலையில்பாலிபீனால்ஸ் என்ற ஆண்டி ஆக்சிடென்ட் உள்ளது. இது நமக்கு நோய்வருவதை தடுப்பதுடன் இளமையை பராமரிக்கவும் பயன்படுகிறது.

            ஞாபக சக்தி அதிகரிக்கும்:

            நிலக்கடலை மூளை வளர்ச்சிக்கு நல்ல டானிக் போன்றது. நிலக்கடலையில் மூளை வளர்ச்சிக்கு பயன்படும் விட்டமின் 3 நியாசின்உள்ளது. இது மூளை வளர்ச்சிக்கும் ஞாபக சக்திக்கும் பெரிதும்பயனளிக்கிறது. ரத்த ஓட்டத்தையும் சீராக்குகிறது.

            மன அழுத்தம் போக்கும்:

            நிலக்கடையில் பரிப்டோபான் என்ற முக்கிய அமினோ அமிலம்நிறைந்துள்ளது. இந்த வகை அமினோ அமிலம் செரட் டோனின் என்றமூளையை உற்சாகப்படுத்தும். உயிர் வேதிப் பொருள் உற்பத்திக்கு பயன்படுகிறது. செரட்டோனின் மூளை நரம்புகளை தூண்டுகிறது. மனஅழுத்தத்தை போக்குகிறது. நிலக்கடைலையை தொடர்ந்துசாப்பிடுவோருக்கு மன அழுத்தத்தைப் போக்குகிறது.

            கொழுப்பை குறைக்கும்:

            தலைப்பை படிப்பவர்களுக்கு ஆச்சரியம் ஏற்படலாம். ஆனால் அதுதான்உண்மை. நிலக்கடலை சாப்பிட்டால் கொழுப்பு சத்து அதிகமாகும் என்றுநம்மில் பலரும் நினைத்திருப்போம். ஆனால் அதில் உண்மையில்லை. மாறாக மனிதனுக்கு நன்மை செய்யும் கொழுப்பு தான் நிலக்கடலையில்உள்ளது. நிலக்கடலையில் உள்ள தாமிரம் மற்றும் துத்தநாக சத்தானதுநமது உடலின் தீமை செய்யும் கொழுப்பை குறைத்து நன்மை செய்யும்கொழுப்பை அதிகமாக்குகிறது. 100 கிராம் நிலக்கடலையில் 24 கிராம்மோனோ அன் சாச்சுரேட்டேட் வகை கொழுப்பு உள்ளது. பாலிஅன்சாச்சுரேட்டேடு 16 கிராம் உள்ளது.

            இந்த இருவகை கொழுப்புமே நமது உடம்புக்கு நன்மை செய்யும்கொழுப்பாகும். பாதாமை விட நிலக்கடலையில் நன்மை செய்யும்கொழுப்பு அதிகமாக உள்ளது. நிலக்கடலையில் உள்ள ஒமேகா-3 சத்தானது நமது உடலின் நோய் எதிர்ப்பு சக்தியை அதிகரிக்கிறது.

            அமெரிக்கர்களை கவர்ந்த நிலக்கடலை:

            உலக அளவில் சீனாவிற்கு அடுத்து இந்தியாவில்தான் நிலக்கடலைஅதிகம் உற்பத்தி செய்யப்படுகிறது. இவ்விரு நாடுகளின் மக்கள்பெருக்கத்திற்கும் நிலக்கடலை முக்கிய காரணமாகும். இந்தியாவில்குழந்தைப் பேறுக்கான மருந்துகளின் விற்பனை வாய்ப்புக்கு நிலக்கடலைஉண்ணும் வழக்கம் தடையாக இருக்கிறது மற்றும் சில இதய நோய்க்கானமருந்துகளை விற்பனை செய்ய முடியவில்லை. எனவே இந்தியர்களிடம்நிலக்கடலை குறித்து தவறான தகவல்களை பரப்பி நிலக்கடலை மற்றும்நிலக்கடலை எண்ணெய் வகைகளை பயன்படுத்துவதை தடுத்துவிட்டார்கள். இதன் காரணமாக குழந்தையில்லாத தம்பதிகள் பெருகிவிட்டார்கள்.!!!
            கடந்த 20 வருடமாக இந்தியாவில் நிலக்கடலையின் விலை பெரியமாற்றம் ஏதும் இல்லாமல் ஒரே விலையில் விற்பனை செய்யப்படுகிறது. ஆனால் இதே கால கட்டத்தில் அமெரிக்கர்களின் உணவில்நிலக்கடலையின் பங்கு 15 மடங்கு கூடி இருப்பதுடன் விலையும் கூடிஇருக்கிறது. இந்தியர்கள் அனைவரும் நிலக்கடலை சாப்பிட ஆரம்பித்தால்அமெரிக்கர்கள் நிலக்கடலை அதிகம் விலை கொடுத்து சாப்பிட வேண்டும்என்று கருதிதான் இந்தியர்களிடம் நிலக்கடலை குறித்து தவறானதகவல்கள் பரப்பப்பட்டுள்ளது.இந்தியர்கள் இந்த உண்மையை அறிந்து அதிகம் உபயோக்கிக்க முன்வரவேண்டும்.

            கருப்பை கோளாறுக்கு முற்றுப்புள்ளி:

            பெண்களின் இயல்பான ஹார்மோன் வளர்ச்சியை நிலக்கடலைசீராக்குகிறது. இதனால் பெண்களுக்கு விரைவில் குழந்தை பேறுஏற்படுவதுடன் பெண்களுக்கு ஏற்படும் மார்பகக் கட்டி உண்டாவதையும்தடுக்கிறது.பெண்களுக்கு பெரிதும் தேவையான போலிக் அமிலம், பாஸ்பரஸ், கால்சியம், பொட்டாசியம், துத்தநாகம், இரும்பு, விட்டமின்கள், குறுட்டாமிக் அமிலம் நிலக்கடலையில் நிறைந்துள்ளது. இதன் காரணமாக பெண்களுக்கு கருப்பை கட்டிகள், நீர்கட்டிகள்ஏற்படுவதையும் தடுக்கிறது.

          • The Holy Relic of St.Sebastian will be placed in our church for veneration on 23rd & 24th of this month. we request all to participate on this auspicious day.

            புனித செபஸ்தியாரின் திருப்பண்டம் ஆனது நமது புனித செபஸ்தியார் ஆலயத்தில் வருகின்ற 23 மற்றும் 24 ஆகிய தேதிகளில் நமது பார்வைக்கு மற்றும் ஜெப வழிபாடுகளுக்காக கொண்டுவரப்படுகிறது அனைவரும் இந்த அரிய வாய்ப்பை பயன்படுத்திக்கொள்ளுமாறு கேட்டுக்கொள்கிறோம்.

            • TruckSuvidha
              • 0/5 (0 votes)
              Blog by TruckSuvidha

              Journey Inspire team shared the Journey of #risingentrepreneur Ishu Bansal and Amit Punaini. Watch the video to know the revolutionizing journey of TruckSuvidha. How they are connecting Indian transport Industry online on one single platform.

              TruckSuvidha is a leading portal for the Indian transport and logistics Industry. It is connecting Fleet owners, Commission agent, Transport contractors, industries, logistics, Packers and movers & truck drivers for the timely and effective communication. The name TruckSuvidha itself shows the core thinking behind it “We are here to Help”.  It aims at simplifying the working of Indian trucking, logistics and Transportation companies in India. It put one step ahead in the world of technology to make modernized and efficient Indian transport industry.

              It was founded by two entrepreneurs “Amit Punaini” and “Ishu Bansal” in the year of 2014. Yamuna Nagar based TruckSuvidha running its operation in pan India with a team size of around 35 members. It is known for its exhaustive database of transport companies, logistics companies, Packers & movers companies and renowned Industries and real time truck and load availability information on forward and return journey as well. On an aggregate, 32500+ verified transporters and 15500+ customers/industries across India are registered with us.

              All the freight related operations which a transporter can think off can be fulfilled with TruckSuvidha. It give load provider an ease to choose city (source and destination), material type, number of trucks required or offering, date, quotation expected and many more. Either the truck requirement related to part load or full load, can easily be fulfilled with TruckSuvidha. All types of transporters either they have light and medium commercial vehicles or heavy commercial vehicles can list themselves on TruckSuvidha. Moreover, it does not act as a broker or a commission agent but let customer and transporter to connect with each other and lock the deal.

              Along with real time truck and load availability information, user can also avail the facility GPS vehicle tracking facility for their vehicles. Not only, it helps to monitor and secure their fleets but also helps to avail load timely for their idle vehicles. Moreover, users can also order and avail the service of electronic tag “Fastag” issued by NHAI on its portal. Communications become easy and faster between Transporter, truck driver and Industries as everyone get clear and complete information on its mobile screen.

              It has an expert team of customer care who attend users’ queries and work on customers requirement. Customer Support Number is 8882-08-08-08 or Email is info@trucksuvidha.com

              Website: trucksuvidha

              Facebook: facebook

              Twitter: twitter

              YouTube Video: 

            •   With just one verse from the Old Testament Book of Proverbs, we can prove that the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is not Muhammad's Allah:

              Who has gone up to heaven and come down?

              Who has gathered the wind in His hands?

              Who has bound up the waters in a cloak? 

              Who has established all the ends of the earth?

              What is His name, 

              and what is the name of His Son— 

              if you know?

              Proverbs 30



              Original: https://apologika.blogspot.com/2019/02/one-of-proofs-that-yahweh-is-not.html
              By: Mari Kaimo
              Posted: February 5, 2019, 5:16 pm

              • Baselinebiz
                • 0/5 (0 votes)
                Blog by Baselinebiz

                Every organization has got its own site today, if you do not have 1 yet, it might get challenging for you to survive in this aggressive world. Your challengers might just smash you and step forward of you. So, you must get a site for your organization in order to remain connected with your present clients and stay forward. A site helps your clients  get easy access to all the details related to you and your organization. Also, they can call you easily, which will eventually help you increase your business, generate more profits and increase income.

                 

                Well, after knowing the significance of having a site, every organization owner will want one. On the other hand, it is extremely complicated to hire a web developer. You can both hire a freelance web developer or select a web development company or organization. Like as is one of the best Web development Company in Chandigarh. If you go to the previous one, you will have to check out if he has got all the capabilities needed for web development. If you go for the second one, there is  a lot of factors which you must examine before taking a final decision.

                 

                web development company in chadiagrh

                 

                 

                With the continuous improve in the requirement for web developers, there are a lot of organizations who have started offering the web development solutions and they hire the finest one possible. Even so, among so many organizations, it is essential for you to select the best one. There are a lot of points which you must get into the concern before making the collection. Let's take a look at some of the most essential aspects to think about when selecting a web development company...

                 

                1. Qualified and guaranteed: Be sure that the company has got an  expert license and qualification to run the organization. Also, ensure that it has got the insurance plan and has got all the insurance policy papers.

                 

                web development company in chadiagrh

                 

                 

                2. Solutions and skills: Ask them about all the services they offer and also the ones they are experts in. It is recommended to select a company who is an expert in website development, so that you get to deal with the professionals in the field.

                 

                3. Experience: Ask the number of several years of experience of the company along with the web developers working in the organization.

                 

                4. Tools and technological innovation: Ensure that the experts are using the latest equipment and technological innovation when developing the sites.

                 

                5. Cost: Consult them what they will fee for your project and also discuss the mode of transaction in order to avoid issues later on.

                 

                6. Availability: Let them know your actual specifications and consult them if they are available to finish your task in your preferred time frame

                 

                7. After project assist: Request them what if you get trapped somewhere once the task is ready? Ensure that you choose an organization that offers efficient support services, once the task is done, so that you can get all the necessary changes done simply.

                 

                Now that you know the factors to remember, be sure you keep them in mind and select the perfect web development company.

              •   Islam denies that Jesus died and rose again after three days, one of the central teachings of the Gospel. And Mark 14:50 is one verse which Muslims quote to try and support the Islamic claim that Jesus was never crucified. 

                  "Then they all deserted Him and ran away." Mark 14:50

                  They claim that, since Jesus' apostles abandoned Him at the Garden of Gethsemane, there would have been no



                Original: https://apologika.blogspot.com/2016/07/did-all-of-jesus-apostles-desert-him-at.html
                By: Mari Kaimo
                Posted: July 22, 2016, 8:37 pm

                • TruckSuvidha
                  • 0/5 (0 votes)
                  Blog by TruckSuvidha

                  3rd December 2018: TruckSuvidha, India’s leading truck and load matching portal announced that it had won the title of Freight Forwarding Company of the Year 2018-India. TruckSuvidha nominated and selected for the Global Business Insight Awards 2018. This award celebrates business leadership, innovation in finance and investment, and overall global success. Global Business Insight is a knowledge sharing platform that is committed to supplying its audience with the latest business news, financial analyses and developments across the globe. There were seven different and wider categories for nominations as per the business suitability.

                  Ishu Bansal, co-founder on behalf of TruckSuvidha had received the award on 3rd December 2018. TruckSuvidha is a leading portal known for its excellence and innovation it has done for Indian trucking Industry from last 4 years. This concept is born and brought by him along with his Partner Mr. Amit Punaini. They are offering all the services starting from truck and load matching, GPS Vehicle tracking Solution and Fleet Management Software’s under one roof.

                   

                  About Global Business Insight

                  Global Business Insight is a knowledge sharing platform designed for and committed to sharing the latest business news, financial analyses and sector growths and developments from across the globe, with its audience. By tracking global markets, investigating happenings in the finance and investment sectors and reporting on the latest mergers and acquisitions on a monthly basis, we are confident that we pave the way to the deepest level of understanding of not only the challenges that businesses around the globe face everyday, but address how these challenges can be overcome and then discover the reasons how and why they differ from sector to sector.

                   

                  About TruckSuvidha

                  TruckSuvidha is an online platform connecting transporters, industries, logistics & truck drivers for the timely and effective communication. It aims to organize an un-organized sector providing easy booking of heavy commercial vehicles and boost the business of people associated with us. The basic problem faced by the logistics industry is a lack of information which TruckSuvidha overcomes by providing an extensive database of truckers, transporters and service providers alike. It is offering services like post load, post truck, search load, search truck, truck load matching, distance calculator, transporters directory, web profile creation and many more. The best part about TruckSuvidha is anyone with a basic knowledge of navigating a site can book a truck through us which would seem a difficult affair in this technology deprived industry.

                   

                  Website:    trucksuvidha

                  Facebook: facebook trucksuvidha

                  Twitter:      twitter trucksuvidha

                  Pinterest:  pinterest trucksuvidha

                  Instagram: instagram trucksuvidha

                  LinkedIn:    linkedin truck-suvidha

                  Google Plus:  plus google

                  Youtube:   youtube channel

                  Vimeo:   vimeo trucksuvidha

                  Contact Number: 8882-08-08-08

                •   A Muslim quotes Jesus in Matthew 15:24 ("I was sent only to the Lost Sheep of Israel") and then writes, "I am from Nigeria, Jesus was not sent to me."

                    This is a common Muslim error which comes from a lack of knowledge about the Bible. But the error is easily corrected. 

                    Prior to His ascension to heaven in Matthew 28, the Lord commanded His followers to preach the Gospel to and make



                  Original: https://apologika.blogspot.com/2018/12/who-was-first-non-jewish-christian-lost.html
                  By: Mari Kaimo
                  Posted: December 26, 2018, 10:56 am

                • Charity Organization Go Green, Grow Green Marathon 

                  Go Green, Grow Green Marathon

                  www.facebook.com

                  Go Green, Grow Green Marathon. 40 likes. A fun run with family for the cause of ecology.

                •   If Jeremiah was, in fact, saying in Jeremiah 8 that the Torah had been forever corrupted -- as Muslims claim -- then why on earth would he keep talking about the Torah for at least another 36 chapters?

                    All Scripture references below are from the Complete Jewish Bible:

                   4 So tell them that this is what Adonai says: “If you will not pay attention to me and live according to my Torah,



                  Original: https://apologika.blogspot.com/2018/12/has-torah-law-been-corrupted-as-muslims.html
                  By: Mari Kaimo
                  Posted: December 22, 2018, 11:55 am

                  • Christian Hill

                      A Muslim in a Facebook debate group asked, "Did Jesus Christ command Christians to celebrate his birthday on Christmas Day?"

                      Why are Muslims so upset that Christians celebrate the birth of Christ once a year when all of heaven celebrated His birth almost 2,000 years ago? 

                    8 In the same region, shepherds were staying out in the fields and keeping watch at night over their flock.

                    9 Then an



                    Original: https://apologika.blogspot.com/2018/12/celebrating-with-heaven.html
                    By: Mari Kaimo
                    Posted: December 17, 2018, 2:01 pm

                    • alenalbert
                      • 4/5 (1 votes)
                      Blog by alenalbert

                      During this time you know might just get that drinking lots of water is important to maintaining good health. But did you know the limits of safe drinking water? Yes, excessive fluid intake into the body it can bring negative effects to the body.

                       drink water as much as 2 liters a day to prevent the body lacks well as excess fluid. As for people who are elderly it is recommended to drink a little more water, at least 1 liter and a maximum of 1.5 liters a day. This is because the kidney function of people aged 65 years and over has plummeted.
                      Bad Impacts Most Drinking Water

                      In people who have kidney disease or who only had one kidney in particular should not be too much of drinking water. That's because the kidneys can not function properly and most of the liquid can actually cause hyperfiltration and kidney swelling.

                      Most drinking water also gives a bad impact on your kidneys are still working fine. Excess fluid in the body can lead to decreased levels of sodium in the blood. Shortage of sodium levels can cause drowsiness and make you tired easily.

                      When the sport was still recommended you drink enough water, there can be advantages or disadvantages. Fluid intake should be adjusted based on physical activity or exercise performed. According to physical activity ranging from mild to severe intensity can deplete body fluids as much as 5 liters.

                      For those who have a urinary tract stone disease, drinking water safety limit recommended is as much as three liters per day. For people whose kidney function has decreased, for example in patients with stage 4 chronic kidney disease, water consumption is recommended at most equal to the amount of liquid released by the urine for 1 day.

                      In a relaxed state or when not doing physical activity, the volume of fluid removed from the body at 1.6 liters. Fluid released from urine as much as approximately 500 ml, of the skin through perspiration approximately 500 ml, 400 ml through the respiratory tract, and in the feces (stool) of 200 ml.

                      Intake of fluids should offset the amount of fluid removed. The liquid can you get not just drinking water, but also of fluid from beverages and food. In a normal body condition, water intake should not be excessive because the kidneys normally only able to spend about 400-600 ml of water per hour.

                      get fit body in Health Blog And Reviews

                      • Roger Samara
                          Christian Hill
                          • 5/5 (1 votes)
                          Bookmark by Christian Hill

                            While Muslims claim that Muhammad followed on the heels of the Biblical prophets, his message was very different from that of the true prophets of God. For instance, Islam claims that the message of Yeshua the Messiah was intended only for the Jews and that He was never sent to minister to the Gentile world, which is known in the Tanakh (Old Testament) as "the nations."

                            The Scriptures as



                          Original: https://apologika.blogspot.com/2018/12/messiah-king-of-jews-and-gentiles-lost.html
                          By: Mari Kaimo
                          Posted: December 6, 2018, 4:44 pm

                          • Plantgrowpick
                            Plantgrowpick rated Christmas's Rating with 5 stars
                              Meril Jeffery John.J
                              • 5/5 (3 votes)

                              Christmas Nativity DepictionChristmas or Christmas Day (Old EnglishCrīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed most commonly on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is prepared for by the season of Advent or Nativity Fast and is prolonged by the Octave of Christmas and the season of Christmastide. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated culturally by a large number of non-Christian people, and is an integral part of the Christmas and holiday season.

                              Origin of the word:

                              The word for Christmas in late Old English is Cristes Maesse, the Mass of Christ, first found in 1038, and Cristes-messe, in 1131. In Dutch it is Kerstmis, in LatinDies Natalis, whence comes the French Noël, and Italian Il natale; in German Weihnachtsfest, from the preceeding sacred vigil. The term Yule is of disputed origin. It is unconnected with any word meaning "wheel". The name in Anglo-Saxon was geolfeastgeola, the name of a month (cf. Icelandic iol a feast in December).

                              Early celebration:

                              Christmas was not among the earliest festivals of the ChurchIrenaeus and Tertullian omit it from their lists of feastsOrigen, glancing perhaps at the discreditable imperial Natalitia, asserts (in Lev. Hom. viii in Migne, P.G., XII, 495) that in the Scriptures sinners alone, not saints, celebrate their birthday;Arnobius (VII, 32 in P.L., V, 1264) can still ridicule the "birthdays" of the gods.

                              History:

                              The Chronography of 354 AD contains early evidence of the celebration on December 25 of a Christian liturgical feast of the birth of Jesus. This was in Rome, while in Eastern Christianity the birth of Jesus was already celebrated in connection with the Epiphany on January 6. The December 25 celebration was imported into the East later: in Antioch by John Chrysostom towards the end of the 4th century, probably in 388, and in Alexandria only in the following century. Even in the West, the January 6 celebration of the nativity of Jesus seems to have continued until after 380. In 245,Origen of Alexandria, writing about Leviticus 12:1–8, commented that Scripture mentions only sinners as celebrating their birthdays, namely Pharaoh, who then had his chief baker hanged (Genesis 40:20–22), and Herod, who then had John the Baptist beheaded (Mark 6:21–27), and mentions saints as cursing the day of their birth, namely Jeremiah (Jeremiah 20:14–15) and Job (Job 3:1–16). In 303, Arnobius ridiculed the idea of celebrating the birthdays of gods, a passage cited as evidence that Arnobius was unaware of any nativity celebration. Since Christmas does not celebrate Christ's birth "as God" but "as man", this is not evidence against Christmas being a feast at this time. The fact the Donatists of North Africa celebrated Christmas may indicate that the feast was established by the time that church was created in 311.

                              Many popular customs associated with Christmas developed independently of the commemoration of Jesus' birth, with certain elements having origins in pre-Christian festivals that were celebrated around the winter solstice by pagan populations who were later converted to Christianity. These elements, including the Yule log from Yule and gift giving from Saturnalia, became syncretized into Christmas over the centuries. The prevailing atmosphere of Christmas has also continually evolved since the holiday's inception, ranging from a sometimes raucous, drunken, carnival-like state in the Middle Ages, to a tamer family-oriented and children-centered theme introduced in a 19th-century reformation. Additionally, the celebration of Christmas was banned on more than one occasion within certain Protestant groups, such as the Puritans, due to concerns that it was too pagan or unbiblical.

                              Choice of December 25 date:

                              Alexandria

                              The first evidence of the feast is from Egypt. About A.D. 200, Clement of Alexandria (Stromata I.21) says that certain Egyptian theologians "over curiously" assign, not the year alone, but the day of Christ's birth, placing it on 25 Pachon (20 May) in the twenty-eighth year of Augustus. [Ideler (Chron., II, 397, n.) thought they did this believing that the ninth month, in which Christ was born, was the ninth of their own calendar.] Others reached the date of 24 or 25Pharmuthi (19 or 20 April). With Clement's evidence may be mentioned the "De paschæ computus", written in 243 and falsely ascribed to Cyprian (P.L., IV, 963 sqq.), which places Christ's birth on 28 March, because on that day the material sun was created. But Lupi has shown (Zaccaria, Dissertazioni ecc. del p. A.M. Lupi, Faenza, 1785, p. 219) that there is no month in the year to which respectable authorities have not assigned Christ's birth. Clement, however, also tells us that the Basilidians celebrated the Epiphany, and with it, probably, the Nativity, on 15 or 11 Tybi (10 or 6 January). At any rate this double commemoration became popular, partly because the apparition to the shepherds was considered as one manifestation of Christ's glory, and was added to the greater manifestations celebrated on 6 January; partly because at the baptism-manifestation many codices (e.g. Codex Bezæ) wrongly give the Divine words as sou ei ho houios mou ho agapetos, ego semeron gegenneka se (Thou art my beloved Son, this day have I begotten thee) in lieu of en soi eudokesa (in thee I am well pleased), read in Luke 3:22. Abraham Ecchelensis (Labbe, II, 402) quotes the Constitutions of the Alexandrian Church for a dies Nativitatis et Epiphaniæ inNicæan times; Epiphanius (Hær., li, ed. Dindorf, 1860, II, 483) quotes an extraordinary semi-Gnostic ceremony at Alexandria in which, on the night of 5-6 January, a cross-stamped Korê was carried in procession round a crypt, to the chant, "Today at this hour Korê gave birth to the Eternal"; John Cassian records in his "Collations" (X, 2 in P.L., XLIX, 820), written 418-427, that the Egyptian monasteries still observe the "ancient custom"; but on 29 Choiak (25 December) and 1 January, 433, Paul of Emesa preached before Cyril of Alexandria, and his sermons (see Mansi, IV, 293; appendix to Act. Conc. Eph.) show that the December celebration was then firmly established there, and calendars prove its permanence. The December feast therefore reached Egypt between 427 and 433.

                              Cyprus, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Asia Minor

                              In Cyprus, at the end of the fourth century, Epiphanius asserts against the Alogi (Hær., li, 16, 24 in P.G., XLI, 919, 931) that Christ was born on 6 January and baptized on 8 November. Ephraem Syrus (whose hymns belong to Epiphany, not to Christmas) proves that Mesopotamia still put the birth feast thirteen days after the winter solstice; i.e. 6 January; Armenia likewise ignored, and still ignores, the December festival. (Cf. Euthymius, "Pan. Dogm.", 23 in P.G., CXXX, 1175; Niceph., "Hist. Eccl,", XVIII, 53 in P.G., CXLVII, 440; Isaac, Catholicos of Armenia in eleventh or twelfth century, "Adv. Armenos", I, xii, 5 in P.G., CXXII, 1193; Neale, "Holy Eastern Church", Introd., p. 796). In Cappadocia, Gregory of Nyssa's sermons on St. Basil (who died before 1 January, 379) and the two following, preached on St. Stephen's feast (P.G., XLVI, 788; cf, 701, 721), prove that in 380 the 25th December was already celebrated there, unless, followingUsener's too ingenious arguments (Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, Bonn, 1889, 247-250), one were to place those sermons in 383. Also, Asterius of Amaseia (fifth century) and Amphilochius of Iconium (contemporary of Basil and Gregory) show that in their dioceses both the feasts of Epiphany and Nativitywere separate (P.G., XL, 337 XXXIX, 36).

                              Jerusalem

                              In 385, Silvia of Bordeaux (or Etheria, as it seems clear she should be called) was profoundly impressed by the splendid Childhood feasts at Jerusalem. They had a definitely "Nativity" colouring; the bishop proceeded nightly to Bethlehem, returning to Jerusalem for the day celebrations. The Presentation was celebrated forty days after. But this calculation starts from 6 January, and the feast lasted during the octave of that date. (Peregr. Sylv., ed. Geyer, pp. 75 sq.) Again (p. 101) she mentions as high festivals Easter and Epiphany alone. In 385, therefore, 25 December was not observed at Jerusalem. This checks the so-called correspondence between Cyril of Jerusalem (348-386) and Pope Julius I (337-352), quoted by John of Nikiû (c. 900) to convert Armenia to 25 December (see P.L., VIII, 964 sqq.). Cyril declares that his clergy cannot, on the single feast of Birth and Baptism, make a double procession to Bethlehem and Jordan. (This later practice is here an anachronism.) He asks Julius to assign the true date of the nativity "from census documents brought by Titus to Rome"; Julius assigns 25 December. Another document (Cotelier, Patr. Apost., I, 316, ed. 1724) makes Julius write thus to Juvenal of Jerusalem (c. 425-458), adding that Gregory Nazianzen at Constantinople was being criticized for "halving" the festival. But Julius died in 352, and by 385 Cyril had made no change; indeed, Jerome, writing about 411 (in Ezech., P.L., XXV, 18), reproves Palestine for keeping Christ's birthday (when He hid Himself) on the Manifestation feast. Cosmas Indicopleustes suggests (P.G., LXXXVIII, 197) that even in the middle of the sixth century Jerusalem was peculiar in combining the two commemorations, arguing from Luke 3:23 that Christ's baptism day was the anniversary of His birthday. The commemoration, however, of David and James the Apostle on 25 December at Jerusalem accounts for the deferred feast. Usener, arguing from the "Laudatio S. Stephani" of Basil of Seleucia (c. 430. — P.G., LXXXV, 469), thinks that Juvenal tried at least to introduce this feast, but that Cyril's greater name attracted that event to his own period.

                              Antioch

                              In Antioch, on the feast of St. Philogonius, Chrysostom preached an important sermon. The year was almost certainly 386, though Clinton gives 387, and Usener, by a long rearrangement of the saint's sermons, 388 (Religionsgeschichtl. Untersuch., pp. 227-240). But between February, 386, when Flavian ordained Chrysostom priest, and December is ample time for the preaching of all the sermons under discussion. (See Kellner, Heortologie, Freiburg, 1906, p. 97, n. 3). In view of a reaction to certain Jewish rites and feasts, Chrysostom tries to unite Antioch in celebrating Christ's birth on 25 December, part of the community having already kept it on that day for at least ten years. In the West, he says, the feast was thus kept, anothen; its introduction into Antioch he had always sought, conservatives always resisted. This time he was successful; in a crowded church he defended the new custom. It was no novelty; from Thrace to Cadiz this feast was observed — rightly, since its miraculously rapid diffusion proved its genuineness. Besides, Zachary, who, as high-priest, entered the Temple on the Day of Atonement, received therefore announcement of John's conception in September; six months later Christ was conceived, i.e. in March, and born accordingly in December.

                              Finally, though never at Rome, on authority he knows that the census papers of the Holy Family are still there. [This appeal to Roman archives is as old as Justin Martyr (First Apology 34-35) and Tertullian (Adv. Marc., IV, 7, 19). Julius, in the Cyriline forgeries, is said to have calculated the date from Josephus, on the same unwarranted assumptions about Zachary as did Chrysostom.] Rome, therefore, has observed 25 December long enough to allow of Chrysostom speaking at least in 388 as above (P.G., XLVIII, 752, XLIX, 351).

                              Constantinople

                              In 379 or 380 Gregory Nazianzen made himself exarchos of the new feast, i.e. its initiator, in Constantinople, where, since the death of Valens, orthodoxy was reviving. His three Homilies (see Hom. xxxviii in P.G., XXXVI) were preached on successive days (Usener, op. cit., p. 253) in the private chapel called Anastasia. On his exile in 381, the feast disappeared.

                              According, however, to John of Nikiû, Honorius, when he was present on a visit, arranged with Arcadius for the observation of the feast on the Roman date.Kellner puts this visit in 395; Baumstark (Oriens Chr., 1902, 441-446), between 398 and 402. The latter relies on a letter of Jacob of Edessa quoted by George of Beeltân, asserting that Christmas was brought to Constantinople by Arcadius and Chrysostom from Italy, where, "according to the histories", it had been kept from Apostolic times. Chrysostom's episcopate lasted from 398 to 402; the feast would therefore have been introduced between these dates by Chrysostom bishop, as at Antioch by Chrysostom priest. But Lübeck (Hist. Jahrbuch., XXVIII, I, 1907, pp. 109-118) proves Baumstark's evidence invalid. More important, but scarcely better accredited, is Erbes' contention (Zeitschrift f. Kirchengesch., XXVI, 1905, 20-31) that the feast was brought in by Constantine as early as 330-35.

                              Rome

                              At Rome the earliest evidence is in the Philocalian Calendar (P.L., XIII, 675; it can be seen as a whole in J. Strzygowski, Kalenderbilder des Chron. von Jahre 354, Berlin, 1888), compiled in 354, which contains three important entries. In the civil calendar 25 December is marked "Natalis Invicti". In the "Depositio Martyrum" a list of Roman or early and universally venerated martyrs, under 25 December is found "VIII kal. ian. natus Christus in Betleem Iudeæ". On "VIII kal. mart." (22 February) is also mentioned St. Peter's Chair. In the list of consuls are four anomalous ecclesiastical entries: the birth and death days of Christ, the entry into Rome, and martyrdom of Saints Peter and Paul. The significant entry is "Chr. Cæsare et Paulo sat. XIII. hoc. cons. Dns. ihs. XPC natus est VIII Kal. ian. d. ven. luna XV," i.e. during the consulship of (Augustus) Cæsar and Paulus Our Lord Jesus Christ was born on the eighth before the calends of January (25 December), a Friday, the fourteenth day of the moon. The details clash with tradition and possibility. The epact, here XIII, is normally XI; the year is A.U.C. 754, a date first suggested two centuries later; in no year between 751 and 754 could 25 December fall on a Friday; tradition is constant in placing Christ's birth on Wednesday. Moreover the date given for Christ's death (duobus Geminis coss., i.e. A.D. 29) leaves Him only twenty eight, and one-quarter years of life. Apart from this, these entries in a consul list are manifest interpolations. But are not the two entries in the "Depositio Martyrum" also such? Were the day of Christ's birth in the flesh alone there found, it might stand as heading the year of martyrs' spiritual natales; but 22 February is there wholly out of place. Here, as in the consular fasti, popular feasts were later inserted for convenience' sake. The civil calendar alone was not added to, as it was useless after the abandonment ofpagan festivals. So, even if the "Depositio Martyrum" dates, as is probable, from 336, it is not clear that the calendar contains evidence earlier than Philocalus himself, i.e. 354, unless indeed pre-existing popular celebration must be assumed to render possible this official recognition. Were the Chalki manuscript ofHippolytus genuine, evidence for the December feast would exist as early as c. 205. The relevant passage [which exists in the Chigi manuscript Without the bracketed words and is always so quoted before George Syncellus (c. 1000)] runs:

                              He gar prote parousia tou kyriou hemon he ensarkos [en he gegennetai] en Bethleem, egeneto [pro okto kalandon ianouarion hemera tetradi] Basileuontos Augoustou [tessarakoston kai deuteron etos, apo de Adam] pentakischiliosto kai pentakosiosto etei epathen de triakosto trito [pro okto kalandon aprilion, hemera paraskeun, oktokaidekato etei Tiberiou Kaisaros, hypateuontos Hrouphou kai Hroubellionos. — (Comm. In Dan., iv, 23; Brotke; 19)

                              "For the first coming of Our Lord in the flesh [in which He has been begotten], in Bethlehem, took place [25 December, the fourth day] in the reign of Augustus [the forty-second year, and] in the year 5500 [from Adam]. And He suffered in His thirty-third year [25 March, the parasceve, in the eighteenth year of Tiberius Cæsar, during the consulate of Rufus and Rubellio]."

                              Interpolation is certain, and admitted by Funk, Bonwetsch, etc. The names of the consuls [which should be Fufius and Rubellius] are wrong; Christ lives thirty-three years; in the genuine Hippolytus, thirty-one; minute data are irrelevant in this discussion with Severian millenniarists; it is incredible that Hippolytus should have known these details when his contemporaries (Clement, Tertullian, etc.) are, when dealing with the matter, ignorant or silent; or should, having published them, have remained unquoted (Kellner, op. cit., p. 104, has an excursus on this passage.)

                              St. Ambrose (de virg., iii, 1 in P.L., XVI, 219) preserves the sermon preached by Pope Liberius I at St. Peter's, when, on Natalis Christi, Ambrose' sister,Marcellina, took the veil. This pope reigned from May, 352 until 366, except during his years of exile, 355-357. If Marcellina became a nun only after thecanonical age of twenty-five, and if Ambrose was born only in 340, it is perhaps likelier that the event occurred after 357. Though the sermon abounds in references appropriate to the Epiphany (the marriage at Cana, the multiplication of loaves, etc.), these seem due (Kellner, op. cit., p. 109) to sequence of thought, and do not fix the sermon to 6 January, a feast unknown in Rome till much later. Usener, indeed, argues (p. 272) that Liberius preached it on that day in 353, instituting the Nativity feast in the December of the same year; but Philocalus warrants our supposing that if preceded his pontificate by some time, though Duchesne's relegation of it to 243 (Bull. crit., 1890, 3, pp. 41 sqq.) may not commend itself to many. In the West the Council of Saragossa (380) still ignores 25 December (see can. xxi, 2). Pope Siricius, writing in 385 (P.L., XII, 1134) to Himerius in Spain, distinguishes the feasts of the Nativity and Apparition; but whether he refers to Roman or to Spanish use is not clear. Ammianus Marcellinus (XXI, ii) and Zonaras (Ann., XIII, 11) date a visit of Julian the Apostate to achurch at Vienne in Gaul on Epiphany and Nativity respectively. Unless there were two visits, Vienne in A.D. 361 combined the feasts, though on what day is still doubtful. By the time of Jerome and Augustine, the December feast is established, though the latter (Epp., II, liv, 12, in P.L., XXXIII, 200) omits it from a list of first-class festivals. From the fourth century every Western calendar assigns it to 25 December. At Rome, then, the Nativity was celebrated on 25 December before 354; in the East, at Constantinople, not before 379, unless with Erbes, and against Gregory, we recognize it there in 330. Hence, almost universally has it been concluded that the new date reached the East from Rome by way of the Bosphorus during the great anti-Arian revival, and by means of the orthodox champions. De Santi (L'Orig. delle Fest. Nat., in Civiltæ Cattolica, 1907), following Erbes, argues that Rome took over the Eastern Epiphany, now with a definiteNativity colouring, and, with as increasing number of Eastern Churches, placed it on 25 December; later, both East and West divided their feast, leavingEphiphany on 6 January, and Nativity on 25 December, respectively, and placing Christmas on 25 December and Epiphany on 6 January. The earlier hypothesis still seems preferable.

                              Origin of date:

                              The gospels

                              Concerning the date of Christ's birth the Gospels give no help; upon their data contradictory arguments are based. The census would have been impossible in winter: a whole population could not then be put in motion. Again, in winter it must have been; then only field labour was suspended. But Rome was not thus considerate. Authorities moreover differ as to whether shepherds could or would keep flocks exposed during the nights of the rainy season.

                              Zachary's temple service

                              Arguments based on Zachary's temple ministry are unreliable, though the calculations of antiquity (see above) have been revived in yet more complicated form, e.g. by Friedlieb (Leben J. Christi des Erlösers, Münster, 1887, p. 312). The twenty-four classes of Jewish priests, it is urged, served each a week in the Temple; Zachary was in the eighth class, Abia. The Temple was destroyed 9 Ab, A.D. 70; late rabbinical tradition says that class 1, Jojarib, was then serving. From these untrustworthy data, assuming that Christ was born A.U.C. 749, and that never in seventy turbulent years the weekly succession failed, it is calculated that the eighth class was serving 2-9 October, A.U.C. 748, whence Christ's conception falls in March, and birth presumably in December. Kellner (op. cit., pp. 106, 107) shows how hopeless is the calculation of Zachary's week from any point before or after it.

                              Analogy to Old Testament festivals

                              It seems impossible, on analogy of the relation of Passover and Pentecost to Easter and Whitsuntide, to connect the Nativity with the feast of Tabernacles, as did, e.g., Lightfoot (Horæ Hebr, et Talm., II, 32), arguing from Old Testament prophecy, e.g. Zacharias 14:16 sqq.; combining, too, the fact of Christ's death in Nisan with Daniel's prophecy of a three and one-half years' ministry (9:27), he puts the birth in Tisri, i.e. September. As undesirable is it to connect 25 December with the Eastern (December) feast of Dedication (Jos. Ant. Jud., XII, vii, 6).

                              Natalis Invicti

                              The well-known solar feast, however, of Natalis Invicti, celebrated on 25 December, has a strong claim on the responsibility for our December date. For the history of the solar cult, its position in the Roman Empire, and syncretism with Mithraism, see Cumont's epoch-making "Textes et Monuments" etc., I, ii, 4, 6, p. 355. Mommsen (Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, 12, p. 338) has collected the evidence for the feast, which reached its climax of popularity under Aurelian in 274. Filippo del Torre in 1700 first saw its importance; it is marked, as has been said, without addition in Philocalus' Calendar. It would be impossible here even to outline the history of solar symbolism and language as applied to God, the Messiah, and Christ in Jewish or Christian canonical, patristic, or devotional works.Hymns and Christmas offices abound in instances; the texts are well arranged by Cumont (op. cit., addit. Note C, p. 355).

                              The earliest rapprochement of the births of Christ and the sun is in Cyprian, "De pasch. Comp.", xix, "O quam præclare providentia ut illo die quo natus est Sol . . . nasceretur Christus." — "O, how wonderfully acted Providence that on that day on which that Sun was born . . . Christ should be born."

                              In the fourth century, Chrysostom, "del Solst. Et Æquin." (II, p. 118, ed. 1588), says: "Sed et dominus noster nascitur mense decembris . . . VIII Kal. Ian. . . . Sed et Invicti Natalem appelant. Quis utique tam invictus nisi dominus noster? . . . Vel quod dicant Solis esse natalem, ipse est Sol iustitiæ." — "But Our Lord, too, is born in the month of December . . . the eight before the calends of January [25 December] . . ., But they call it the 'Birthday of the Unconquered'. Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Lord . . .? Or, if they say that it is the birthday of the Sun, He is the Sun of Justice."

                              Already Tertullian (Apol., 16; cf. Ad. Nat., I, 13; Orig. c. Cels., VIII, 67, etc) had to assert that Sol was not the Christians' God; Augustine (Tract xxxiv, in Joan. In P.L., XXXV, 1652) denounces the heretical identification of Christ with Sol.

                              Pope Leo I (Serm. xxxvii in nat. dom., VII, 4; xxii, II, 6 in P.L., LIV, 218 and 198) bitterly reproves solar survivals — Christians, on the very doorstep of theApostles' basilica, turn to adore the rising sun. Sun-worship has bequeathed features to modern popular worship in Armenia, where Christians had once temporarily and externally conformed to the cult of the material sun (Cumont, op. cit., p. 356).

                              But even should a deliberate and legitimate "baptism" of a pagan feast be seen here no more than the transference of the date need be supposed. The "mountain-birth" of Mithra and Christ's in the "grotto" have nothing in common: Mithra's adoring shepherds (Cumont, op. cit., I, ii, 4, p. 304 sqq.) are rather borrowed from Christian sources than vice versa.

                              Other theories of pagan origin

                              The origin of Christmas should not be sought in the Saturnalia (1-23 December) nor even in the midnight holy birth at Eleusis (see J.E. Harrison, Prolegom., p. 549) with its probable connection through Phrygia with the Naasene heretics, or even with the Alexandrian ceremony quoted above; nor yet in rites analogous to the midwinter cult at Delphi of the cradled Dionysus, with his revocation from the sea to a new birth (Harrison, op. cit., 402 sqq.).

                              The astronomical theory

                              Duchesne (Les origines du culte chrétien, Paris, 1902, 262 sqq.) advances the "astronomical" theory that, given 25 March as Christ's death-day [historically impossible, but a tradition old as Tertullian (Adv. Jud., 8)], the popular instinct, demanding an exact number of years in a Divine life, would place His conception on the same date, His birth 25 December. This theory is best supported by the fact that certain Montanists (Sozomen, Church History VII.18) kept Easter on 6 April; both 25 December and 6 January are thus simultaneously explained. The reckoning, moreover, is wholly in keeping with the arguments based on number and astronomy and "convenience", then so popular. Unfortunately, there is no contemporary evidence for the celebration in the fourth century of Christ's conception on 25 March.

                              Conclusion

                              The present writer in inclined to think that, be the origin of the feast in East or West, and though the abundance of analogous midwinter festivals may indefinitely have helped the choice of the December date, the same instinct which set Natalis Invicti at the winter solstice will have sufficed, apart from deliberate adaptation or curious calculation, to set the Christian feast there too.