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Meril Jeffery John.J

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Brief description: If This is God's Will then no man can Fight it
Sex: Male
Relationship Status: Single

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"Do not be Afraid, Abram (Meril). I will shield you from danger and give you a great reward." (Genesis 15:1) 

"Coincidence is God's way of staying anonymous."

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        • Meril Jeffery John.J
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          • Meril Jeffery John.J
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          • You're the Best Scientist, You're the Best President, You're the Best Inspiration for the Youth, You're the Father of Indian Nuclear & Space Technology above all You're the Best Human Being ~ Though you have gone far away from this world You're Memories & Great Work will Stay with this Mighty Nation Allways.
            RIP ~ Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam

          • People say "I Lost My Heart" well I had the Heart but Lost the BEAT In It ..

          • A giant planet is orbiting the remnants of an exploded star – called a white dwarf – 1200 light years away from Earth. The discovery is the first time an entire planet has been found orbiting a white dwarf.

            The first hint that there may be planets orbiting white dwarfs came earlier this year, when researchers found a small piece of planet in orbit around a white dwarf. Now the same team has discovered evidence of a giant intact planet, similar in size to Jupiter.

            Boris Gänsicke at the University of Warwick in the UK and his colleagues  detected a mysterious disc of gas surrounding a white dwarf. The gas disc contained hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur – a mixture that most likely came from the planet, whose atmosphere is being evaporated by radiation from the white dwarf.

            The giant planet has an orbital period of 10 days and is surprisingly close to the white dwarf, suggesting it migrated inwards, says Gänsicke. A possible explanation is that the presence of other planets may have pushed it inwards.

            Alternatively, another planet may have been absorbed by the exploding star, causing the orbit of the newly discovered planet to be pulled inwards, says Ben Zuckerman at the University of California, Los Angeles, who wasn’t involved with the work.

            “This confirms what we have been thinking for the past 25 years – white dwarfs have proper planetary systems around them,” says Gänsicke. Jupiter and Saturn also migrated in and out during the early days of our solar system. Understanding other solar systems in space could help us understand how our own developed, he says.

            Stars of low to medium mass like the sun become white dwarfs after they have burned up all their fuel and expelled all their outer material, leaving behind only the core of the star. This very hot white dwarf cools down gradually over the next billion years or so. Our sun is about 5 billion years away from becoming a white dwarf, says Zuckerman.

            “This is an exciting discovery,” says Carl Melis at the University of California, San Diego. He says it is surprising that giant planets would be able to survive in such close orbit to the remnants of their host star.

          • Tardigrades are tough little critters. When conditions get nasty, they can dry out, reconfigure their bodies and enter suspended animation - called dessication - for years. You can throw virtually anything at them: frozen temperatures, zero oxygen, high pressures, the vacuum of space, cosmic radiation, and even being boiled.

            But new research has shown these tiny organisms may have a weakness - long-term exposure to high temperatures, even in their dessicated state. The longer the temperatures are maintained, the lower the tardigrades' chances of survival.

            The research shows, its authors said, the importance of understanding the impact of rising global temperatures wrought by anthropogenic climate change on all our planet's creatures.

            Around the world, warming is already impacting both plant and animal life. Some species are expected to weather the changes better than others; cockroaches, for example, are very hardy and adaptable.

            Tardigrades, the microscopic invertebrate creatures also known as water bears or moss piglets, are among the hardiest animals known. There are around 1,300 known species, most of which are between 0.3 and 0.5 millimetres in length.

            They live mostly in wet environments, both marine and freshwater sediments, in mosses and algaes, leaf litter and mud volcanoes, from the equator to the poles. They have tubby little barrel bodies, with eight stumpy little legs, and they look sort of more clumsy and adorable than anything.

            To remain active, tardigrades need to be surrounded by a film of water. When they need to hibernate, they retract their head and legs, and almost completely dry out, a shape known as a 'tun' (named after the barrel they resemble).

            So effective is their extreme hibernation, tardigrades have survived five mass extinctions over Earth's history; and a 2017 study found that the only way to wipe them out would be to boil away Earth's oceans (which will happen one day, but not, hopefully, for another billion years or so).

            But climate change could give these enigmatic creatures a hard time. A 2018 study found a species of Antarctic tardigrade, Acutuncus antarcticus, could be at risk of extinction due to climate change. Now a second species, Ramazzottius varieornatus, has demonstrated a similar weakness.

            "The specimens used in this study were obtained from roof gutters of a house located in Nivå, Denmark," said biologist Ricardo Neves of the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.

            "We evaluated the effect of exposures to high temperature in active and desiccated tardigrades, and we also investigated the effect of a brief acclimation period on active animals."

            For active tardigrades that had not been acclimated to higher temperatures, the population hit a 50 percent mortality rate after spending 24 hours in just 37.1 degrees Celsius (98 degrees Fahrenheit; they'd probably be in a bit of a pickle in Australia).

            A brief acclimation period of two hours at 30°C, followed by two hours at 35°C, raised this mortality threshold to 37.6°C. So acclimation does seem to improve the survival rate.

            Dessicated tardigrades were able to withstand much higher temperatures; a 50 percent mortality rate after 24 hours was observed at 63.1°C (145°F), and additional experiments revealed the creatures will die far more quickly when temperatures are cranked even higher.

            Previously, a 2006 study showed that dessicated tardigrades could survive temperatures up to 151°C (300°F) for up to half an hour. What this new study demonstrates is that the overall tardigrade survival rate drops off steeply the longer the temperature is maintained at unhealthy heights.

            "From this study, we can conclude that active tardigrades are vulnerable to high temperatures, though it seems that these critters would be able to acclimatise to increasing temperatures in their natural habitat," Neve said.

            "Desiccated tardigrades are much more resilient and can endure temperatures much higher than those endured by active tardigrades. However, exposure-time is clearly a limiting factor that constrains their tolerance to high temperatures."

          • Deep within Earth, swirling liquid iron generates our planet's protective magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is vital for life on Earth's surface: It shields the planet from harmful solar wind and cosmic rays.

            Given the importance of the magnetic field, scientists have been trying to figure out how the field has changed throughout Earth's history. That knowledge can provide clues to understanding the future evolution of Earth, as well as the evolution of other planets in the solar system.

            In order to determine the past magnetic field direction and intensity, the researchers dated and analyzed zircon crystals collected from sites in Australia. The zircons are about two-tenths of a millimeter and contain even smaller magnetic particles that lock in the magnetization of the earth at the time the zircons were formed. Here, a zircon crystal is placed within the "O" on a dime, for scale. Credit: University of Rochester / John Tarduno

            New NSF-funded research from the University of Rochester provides evidence that the magnetic field that first formed around Earth was even stronger than scientists previously believed. The research, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, will help scientists draw conclusions about the sustainability of Earth's magnetic shield, and whether there are other planets in the solar system with the conditions necessary to harbor life.

            "This research is telling us something about the formation of a habitable planet," says paper author John Tarduno, Dean of Research for Arts, Sciences, and Engineering at Rochester. "One of the questions we want to answer is why Earth evolved as it did, and this gives us even more evidence that the magnetic shielding was recorded very early on the planet."

            While the researchers initially believed that Earth's early magnetic field had a weak intensity, the new data suggest a stronger field. But, because the inner core had not yet formed, the strong field that originally developed 4 billion years ago must have been powered by a different mechanism.

            "We think that mechanism is chemical precipitation of magnesium oxide within Earth," Tarduno says. The magnesium oxide was likely dissolved by extreme heat related to the giant impact that formed Earth's moon. As the inside of Earth cooled, magnesium oxide could precipitate out.

            Earth's magnetic field today:

            Today's magnetic shield is generated in Earth's outer core. The intense heat in Earth's dense inner core causes the outer core—composed of liquid iron—to swirl and churn, generating electric currents, and driving a phenomenon called the geodynamo, which powers Earth's magnetic field. The currents in the liquid outer core are strongly affected by the heat that flows out of the solid inner core.

            Because of the location and extreme temperatures of materials in the core, scientists aren't able to directly measure the magnetic field. Fortunately, minerals that rise to Earth's surface contain tiny magnetic particles that lock in the direction and intensity of the magnetic field at the time the minerals cool from their molten state.

            Using new paleomagnetic, electron microscope, geochemical, and paleointensity data, the researchers dated and analyzed zircon crystals—the oldest known terrestrial materials—collected from sites in Australia. The zircons, which are about two-tenths of a millimeter, contain even smaller magnetic particles that lock in the magnetization of the earth at the time the zircons were formed.

             

          • When physicists detected signals of high-energy neutrinos coming from a rather unlikely direction in the cosmos, they naturally went looking for a powerful source that might explain it.

            Neutrinos are particles that are similar to electrons, but neutral in charge and has an extremely small mass. Neutrality shown by a neutrino is so extreme that it can pass through any material almost untouched.

            For the subatomic world, neutrinos behave like a ghost, rarely interacting with other constituents. Atomic decay deep inside the Sun sends torrents of these particles flying across the solar system. Every second a lot of these particles pass through our planet, with only a small fraction of them interacting with an atom to cause any response.

            Since 2010 IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica have been set up to detect the presence of these particles. If a neutrino happens to collide with a frozen water molecule it produces a flash. The IceCube facility uses long strips of spherical highly sensitive optical sensors called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) to capture such flashes.

            The observatory has been recording around hundreds of flashes a day creating a vast database of information on the direction and energies of Neutrinos that visited Earth.

            Along with IceCube NASA’s ANITA (Antarctic Impulse Transient Antenna) have also been busy studying the so-called ultra high energy cosmic neutrinos. ANITA studies this from an altitude of 40 KMS, suspended by a helium balloon. Things took a bizarre turn when ANITA discovered two of such neutrino signals came from our planet itself, instead of the sky.

            Neutrino signals to have travelled all the way through the planet to reach ANITA was something extraordinary. Scientist thought this could be a rare occurrence and for it to happen they assumed large quantities of Neutrinos must have passed through Earth at one point.

            If so, IceCube must have also recorded it. Based on this observation a group of scientists went through the data IceCube had. Their aim was to find potential events that could be held responsible for this strange phenomenon to happen.

            Their search turned up nothing. IceCube data couldn’t show any relevant information for the said event. The findings of the team are available at arXiv.org. The team also has submitted their finding the Astrophysical Journal, where the results will receive greater scrutiny from the scientific community.

            As of now the newly discovered particles remains a mystery for scientists. Conventional science has failed to explain what happened. Many speculations are coming up as the Icecube data analysis has failed. It could be a new completely new particle or our standard model of the atom might be flawed. We will have to wait for further research and studies to one day demystify this.

          • Brian Greene, professor of physics and mathematics at Columbia University and co-founder of the World Science Festival, explains how teleportation can be done. 

            Brian Greene: I'm Brian Greene, professor of physics and mathematics at Columbia University and co-founder of the World Science Festival.

            Teleportation is one of the weird ideas, and there is a version of it that physicists now routinely make use of. Nobody is teleporting people from place to place.

            But we can teleport individual particles. We can take a particle at one location, and then in some sense create an absolute identical version of it, exactly the same properties, exactly the same quantum state, if you let me be a little technical.

            And that means, in essence, you've gone from a particle that was here to one over here. And in fact, the process itself destroys the particle over here. So, the only version of this particle that exists when this process is over is the one that's been created at this location.

            And people do this. There is a very very smart physicist - Anton Zeilinger. He routinely teleports particles from Tenerife to La Palma. It's an amazing thing that you can actually do this. The big question, of course, is: Will you ever teleport big things like people?

            And the procedures that are used for individual particles simply do not scale. You cannot simply scale them up to do more and more particles, I don't think. But who knows? 500 or 1,000 years from now, maybe we'll have something on the table that we can try out. If it happens in our lifetime I can tell you one thing for certain - I will not be the first person who goes into that device.

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